The Natural Hazards Review project will develop a framework and best practice approach to characterise natural hazards and seek to improve methodologies where current approaches are inefficient. This is to improve energy system infrastructure design and the project is intended to share knowledge of natural hazards across sectors. The project will be completed in three stages. Phase one will focus on a gap analysis. Phase two will look at developing a series of improved methodologies from the gaps identified in phase one, and phase three will demonstrate how to apply these methodologies. Finally, phase 3 will develop a “how to” guide for use by project engineers.
Marine biofouling, or biological fouling, is the undesirable growth of marine organisms (both plants and animals) on man-made structures that are submerged for a sustained period. Biofouling causes problems by increasing surface complexity, load and hydrodynamic drag on a structure. It can accelerate corrosion, compromise mechanical integrity and ultimately cause system failure
This technical volume addresses:
Introduction to marine biological fouling
Description of the main phenomena
Observations, measurement techniques and modelling tools