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PerAWaT - Final Summary Report


Citation Knowling, P. PerAWaT - Final Summary Report, ETI, 2014. https://doi.org/10.5286/UKERC.EDC.000330.
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Author(s) Knowling, P.
Project partner(s) E.ON Engineering (UK) Ltd, Electricité de France SA (EDF SA), DNV GL - Garrad Hassan and Partners Limited - DNV KEMA Ltd, Queens University Belfast, University of Manchester, University of Edinburgh, University of Oxford
Publisher ETI
DOI https://doi.org/10.5286/UKERC.EDC.000330
Download MRN_MA1003_1.pdf document type
Abstract The Performance Assessment of Wave and Tidal Array Systems (PerAWaT) project, launched in October 2009 with £8m of ETI investment. The project delivered validated, commercial software tools capable of significantly reducing the levels of uncertainty associated with predicting the energy yield of major wave and tidal stream energy arrays. It also produced information that will help reduce commercial risk of future large scale wave and tidal array developments.

This Final Summary Report is the final publishable report of the Performance Assessment of Wave and Tidal Array Systems Project (PerAWaT). It provides an overview of the background and structure of the project, and summarises its results, conclusions and the environmental impact.

Technical Conclusions
  • Hydrodynamic interactions between WECs and TECs operating in arrays can be significant thereforemodelling of array effects is essential when estimating the energy yield of potential project.
  • Wave tank testing of WEC arrays is extremely demanding and needs to be carefully planned and analysed. In particular the effects of reflections can be of the same order as effects of the interactions you are trying to measure. Despite the challenges, it is possible to measure significant interactions in the tank.
  • Linear potential flow theory (used in WaveDyn) is sufficient to accurately model device interactions. Weakly non-linear wave kinematics (non-breaking) do not have a significant influence on device response and performance for operational conditions.
  • The spectral approach in WaveFarmer is capable of accurately predicting energy yield for a large wave farm.
  • Model-scale & full-scale validation of WaveDyn has been invaluable as has model scale validation of WaveFarmer. However, full-scale validation of WaveFarmer will be essential when data becomes available.
  • The mean performance of a tidal device can be predicted usinga Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) model, however, more work is required in order to `correct’ this type of model so as to accurately capture wake recovery.
  • Basin scale modelling using linear momentum actuator disc theory (LMADT) for one row of devices was successful. The limitations of the model are well understood, and the upper limit of energy extraction compares well to analytical methods. However, 3D models such as TidalFarmer are required for detailed assessment of annual energy production
  • .Whilst progress has been made on the analysis of blockage effects of arrays and devices, further work is required to fully understand and model the flow reduction through the array.
Commercial Conclusions
  • The launch of WaveFarmer & TidalFarmer is only the first step in increasing project developers’ confidence in their return on investment in WEC & TEC arrays.
  • Effective commercial exploitation will be required to stimulate use of the tools.
  • The resulting data generated by full scale deployments will enable further development of the tools and the reduction of uncertainty.
  • The reduction of uncertainty could be accelerated by investment in trials to generate full scale data for validation
Associated Project(s) ETI-MA1003: Performance Assessment of Wave and Tidal Array Systems (PerAWaT)
Associated Dataset(s) EDC0000134: Tidal Energy Site Environmental Conditions Measured During the ReDAPT Tidal Project 2011-2014
Associated Publication(s)

ETI Insights Report - Wave Energy

PerAWaT - An Investigation into the effect of Ambient Turbulence Levels on the Wakes of a Conventional Low-Solidity and an Open-Centre High-Solidity Tidal Current Turbine (WG3 WP5 D4)

PerAWaT - A Parameterization of the end-of-Near-Wake Region for a Conventional Low Solidity and an Open-Centre High-Solidity Tidal Current Turbine (WG3 WP5 D3)

PerAWaT - Array Scale Experimental Test Report (WG4 WP2 D5)

PerAWaT - Array Scale Experiment Specification (WG4 WP2 D1)

PerAWaT - Calibration Report for Scale Model Experiments (WG4 WP2 D4)

PerAWaT - Choice of Numerical Model (WG3 WP6 D1)

PerAWaT - Code Development in TELEMAC2D and TELEMAC3D in order to allow for the implementation of Parametric Characterization of Arrays (WG3 WP3 D2)

PerAWaT - Comparison with EDF (WG3 WP6 D6)

PerAWaT - Consent Licence for Installation of 1:10th Scale Tidal Turbines in Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland (WG4 WP5 D1)

PerAWaT - Design and Characterisation of Array Emulators (WG4 WP4 D2)

PerAWaT - Design and Specification of Ducted Disc Experiments (WG4 WP3 D1)

PerAWaT - Design and Testing Specification (WG4 WP4 D1)

PerAWaT - Design of Equipment for Scale Model Experiments (WG4 WP2 D2)

PerAWaT - Development of a Computational Fluid Dynamics Mesoscale Tidal Channel Model

PerAWaT - Development of a Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for a Horizontal Axis Tidal Current Turbine WG3 WP5 D1)

PerAWaT - Development of a Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for an Open-Centre Tidal Current Turbine (WG3 WP5 D2)

PerAWaT - Development of Free Surface Wave Model for an Axial Flow Tidal Turbine

PerAWaT - DIA Methodology Report

PerAWaT - Experimental and Computation Investigations into Ducted Porous Discs and Rotors at Low Blockage (WG4 WP3 D3)

PerAWaT - Experiment Data, Quality Controlled and Delivered (WG4 WP3 D2)

PerAWaT - GH Blockage Modelling Report (WG3 WP4 D1)

PerAWaT - GH Device Scale Modelling Report

PerAWaT - GH Far Wake Modelling Report (WG3 WP4 D5)

PerAWaT - GH Inter-Array Scale Modelling Report (WG3 WP4 D6)

PerAWaT - GH Near Wake Modelling Report (WG3 WP4 D2)

PerAWaT - Identification of Test Requirements and Physical Model Design (WG4 WP1 D1)

PerAWaT - Implementation of Wave Energy Converters in Spectral Wave Models (WG1 WP2 D2)

PerAWaT - Implementation Report: Frequency-Domain Model (WG1 WP1 D2)

PerAWaT - Implementation Report: Time-Domain Model (WG1 WP1 D3)

PerAWaT - Influence of Free Surface Waves on the Performance and Wake Structure of a Ducted Horizontal Axis Tidal Turbine (WG3 WP1 D7)

PerAWaT - Influence of Free Surface Waves on the Performance and Wake Structure of a Horizontal Axis Tidal Turbine

PerAWaT - Large Array Testing

PerAWaT - Methodology and site case analysis for the SpecWEC modelling tool

PerAWaT - Methodology Report (WG1 WP1 D1B)

PerAWaT - Non-Linear Model Description Report (WG1 WP1 D7)

PerAWaT - Numerical Modelling of Tidal Turbine Arrays Involving Interactions within an Array: Development of the Level-Set Free Surface Model

PerAWaT - Numerical Modelling of Tidal Turbine Arrays Involving Interactions within an Array: Implementation of the Zero Tangential Shear Condition

PerAWaT - Performance and Wake Structure of a Full-Scale Horizontal Axis Axial Flow Turbine

PerAWaT - Performance and Wake Structure of a Model Horizontal Axis Axial Flow Turbine

PerAWaT - Rationalised Flow Field Modelling Report (WG3 WP4 D4)

PerAWaT - Regional Scale Plug-In Protocol (WG3 WP4 D10)

PerAWaT - Report of Calibrated Numerical Models of Anglesey and the Bristol Channel, including Validation Against Measured Data (WG3 WP6 D4B)

PerAWaT- Report of Calibrated Numerical Models of Pentland Firth, including Validation Against Measured Data (WG3 WP6 D4A )

PerAWaT - Report on Assessment of the Impact of Energy Extraction for the Horizontal Axis Tidal Turbine on Large Scale Tidal Characteristics at Example UK Sites (WG3 WP6 D8)

PerAWaT - Report on Characterisation and Assessment of the Availability of Resource at Example UK Sites (WG3 WP6 D7)

PerAWaT - Report on Comparisons of Nonlinear Models with Experimental Data for both Single Devices and Arrays of Devices (WG1 WP1 D1)

PerAWaT - Report on Model Setup for Ducted Horizontal-Axis Axial Flow Turbines

PerAWaT - Report on Model Setup for Horizontal Axis Axial Flow Turbines (WG3 WP1 D1)

PerAWaT - Report on Nonlinear Analysis of a Single Controlled Device in Irregular Seas (WG1 WP1 D11), AND Report on Nonlinear Analysis of Controlled Arrays in Irregular Seas (WG1 WP1 D12)

PerAWaT - Report on Non-Linear Analysis of Single and Arrays of Free Floating Devices (WG1 WP1 D9)

PerAWaT - Report on Responses and Power Take-Off from Controlled Devices in Regular Waves (WG1 WP1 D10)

PerAWaT - Report on the Inclusion of FDC Tidal Arrays into DG-ADCIRC Model (WG3 WP6 D5)

PerAWaT - Representation of Wave Energy Converters in Spectral Wave Models (WG1 WP2 D1)

PerAWaT - Scientific Report for the SpecWEC Modelling Tool - Part 1

PerAWaT - Selection of Appropriate Example Sites and Acquisition of Necessary Data to define Site Characteristics (WG3 WP6 D3)

PerAWaT - SpecWec Beta Version Release

PerAWaT - Test Schedule and Test System Design of 1:10th Scale Tidal Turbines in Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland (WG4 WP5 D2)

PerAWaT - Tidal Array Scale Numerical Modelling Interactions within a Farm (Steady Flow) WG3 WP2 D5a

PerAWaT - Tidal Array Scale Numerical Modelling: Interactions within a Farm (Unsteady Flow) WG3 WP2 D5b

PerAWaT - Tidal Array Scale Numerical Modelling: Level Set Technique Implementation within Code Saturne, Validation of the Combined Implementation (Flow Solver)

PerAWaT - Tidal Basin Modelling: the Alderney Race, the Pentland Firth and the Paimpol-Bréhat Sites Modelled in Telemac Software WG3 WP3 D1

PerAWaT- Tidal Coastal Basin Numerical Modelling: Large Scale Effects of Tidal Energy Extraction (WG3 WP3 D4)

PerAWaT - Tidalfarmer Interim Model Validation Report (WG3 WP4 D18)

PerAWaT - Tidalfarmer Model Validation And Uncertainties (WG3 WP4 D19)

PerAWaT - Tidal Farm Modelling: the Alderney Race, the Pentland Firth and the Paimpol-Bréhat Sites Modelled in Telemac Software (WG3 WP3 D3)

PerAWaT - User Report for the SpecWEC Modelling Tool - Part 2

PerAWaT - Validation and Verification of the SpecWEC Numerical Modeling Tool

PerAWaT - Verification of Code (WG3 WP6 D2)

PerAWaT - Weakly-Nonlinear Hydrodynamics of Freely Floating WECS (WG1 WP1 D8)