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Landscapes for Energy Category: CO2 Capture and Storage
CO2 Capture and Storage Landscape
 Author  Prof Stuart Haszeldine
University of Edinburgh
 Last Updated  14 May 2009
 Status  Peer reviewed document
 Download Landscape  PDF 373 KB

 Section 1  Overview  Section 6  Research Facilities and Other Assets
 Section 2  Capabilities Assessment  Section 7  Networks
 Section 3  Basic and applied strategic research  Section 8  UK Participation in EU Activities
 Section 4  Applied Research and Development  Section 9  International Initiatives
 Section 5  Demonstration Funding    
Section :

Characterisation of the field

Most forecasts predict that fossil fuels will continue to play a major role in meeting global energy demand up to, and beyond, 2050, comprising as much as 50 of energy needs. As well as coal, oil and gas, this is likely to include increasing production from unconventional sources such as tar sands, coal-bed methane and coal-to-liquid. In this context, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is potentially a key global technology for mitigating emissions of CO2 - the IPCC estimate that application of CCS worldwide could halve new CO2 emissions (IPCC, 2005). In the 2006 IEA World Energy Outlook (Beyond Alternative Policy), CCS is a requirement to remove about 20 of CO2 emissions, even if nuclear and renewables generation double. CCS deployment in the UK, at demonstration and early commercial stages, could provide working examples of technology, projects, regulatory and financial systems for other parts of the world, while also helping to meet national policy targets for UK CO2 emission reductions. In addition to reduced emissions from power stations, CCS could also contribute to reducing transport sector emissions, via electric or hydrogen-powered vehicles.

Rather than a single technology, CCS spans a series of technologies which enable the capture of CO2 from fossil fuels, transport of liquefied CO2, and its storage in the deep geological subsurface. There are a number of sub-fields or alternative pathways within this, including post- combustion capture, pre-combustion capture, oxyfuel capture, compression, transport, geological injection to aquifers, enhanced oil recovery, monitoring requirements to assure good site performance, and insurance requirements to enable developers to operate.

BERR are operating a competition within the UK, which will provide pubic funds to build the UK s first integrated coal combustion, capture, transport and storage system, to operate before end 2014.

Capture is the most expensive stage of the CCS chain, and substantial research efforts are being undertaken to reduce its energy penalty and associated costs. Of three possible capture methods, post combustion capture (‘scrubbing’) is the most mature, and is routinely used for flue gas separation in the petrochemicals industry or urea manufacture. The solvents need adaptation to resist the impure gases from power plants, and the equipment needs scaling-up by a factor of 10. This can be retrofitted, and is the option favoured within the UK BERR competition. Pre-combustion capture is technically elegant, and potentially a low-cost method of CO2 separation integrated with fuel gasification and large scale hydrogen production on new plant. Pre-combustion separation is mature in petrochemical plants, although there is less experience of flowing process-integration with gasification. Oxyfuel capture is the least mature method, and is under development at large laboratory scale, for commercialisation by 2015. Oxyfuel burners could be retrofitted to enable concentrated CO2 combustion gases to be efficiently separated. Cheaper separation of oxygen from air is required.

Transport of large quantities of CO2 by pipeline is well established in the US (onshore). North Sea industries routinely use oil and and gas pipes offshore, but only the Norwegian Snhovit field has an offshore CO2 pipe since 1996, but a number of research challenges remain.

Geological injection offshore is proven only by the local Utsira experiment. Although enhanced oil recovery (EOR) with CO2 is well established onshore in the US and elsewhere, several evaluations offshore have failed on cost. The injectivity rate and total volume of aquifers remains a significant unknown, as does the seal performance of mudrocks. Better evaluation methods are needed, with operational technology for CO2 imaging and leak detection and cement remediation.

Research Challenges

Key questions for the UK are the prediction and discovery of costs, the subsurface monitoring of injection and CO2 position, prediction and detection of leakage for the time spans involved the ability to provide public acceptability.

  • Development of the first full-scale electricity generation plant, with full-scale CO2 capture as part of operation process will be expensive. Methods are needed to better understand the uncertainties of, and learning effects on, future cost developments. Are 50 capture savings feasible?
  • Improved efficiency of existing combustion technologies and the developing technologies needed to support the extra demands placed upon such equipment operating in increasingly aggressive environments.
  • CO2 capture technologies able to handle large volumes of emissions, with improved efficiency and reduced capital and running cost. Post-combustion: resistant amine solvents or alternatives. Pre-combustion: improved membrane or pressure swing separation of both CO2 and H2. Oxyfuel: cheaper O2 separation from air, better membranes for CO2 separation, chemical looping. Performance of capture during plant ramp-up and ramp-down in a flexible price market.
  • Transport: distances between CO2 sources and sinks can be critical cost barriers to first entrants. Evaluation of pipeline re-use availability, staged entry opportunities, and optimisation of shared facilities are important for business relationships and financially. Purity of CO2 affects compressor and pipeline design.
  • Determination of costs: Capex, e.g. of building new generation plants, retrofitting old plants, installing pipelines, infrastructure at storage sites. Opex offshore, including aquifers, depleted gas fields, Enhanced Oil Recovery platform costs, monitoring, verification protocols for all CCS. Also,
  • Improving assessment of the availability of aquifer storage space. Such field assessment needs to be both in terms of volume and time.
  • Monitoring and verification technology needs to be adapted from existing hydrocarbon and mineral exploration or production, and trialled.
  • Improved basic techniques to evaluate CO2 sealing vertically by mudrock and by faults
  • Enhanced Oil Recovery how will geo-engineering methods be adapted for offshore use? Can gravity drive of CO2 be used cheaply for improved production of total oil resource?
  • Investigation of natural CO2 storage and leakage analogue sites as an aid to understanding and quantifying processes, and as an aid to communicating with the public. Environmental impacts of CO2 leakage into shallow ocean bed and of onshore leakage in a UK setting.
  • Onshore legal and regulatory issues need to be addressed to investigate buffer stores for large projects, or low cost storage by smaller emitters. Clarification of national and supranational licensing, participation of CCS in emissions trading schemes, local, national and supranational environmental protection issues, ratification of international treaties such as OSPAR and the London Convention and its protocol.
  • Public acceptance is a potential showstopper. More investigation is needed to guide approaches to local communities affected. Public information and engagement is persistently neglected.

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Section :

Table 2.1: UK Capabilities

The UK has no direct experience of carbon dioxide capture, but has a long experience of making boiler and turbine systems components for power stations with some UK companies and subsidiaries of trans-national companies. There is therefore a wide and deep experience base which is adapting improving combustion and power plant efficiency and to clean coal technologies. The Technology Ownership is not always strong in the UK, inventions and developments have been sold. There is a wide spectrum of innovative Original Equipment Manufacturers, at different component sizes. It is uncertain if the UK still retains all the capability to make a complete coal or gas plant domestically.

In simple terms, the UK is strong on supercritical coal and (potentially) ultrasupercritical coal plant. Gasifier technology is owned by US and oil companies - although opportunities exist by transfer of skills from UK chemical industry. Membranes and Air Separation could be developed from a very strong university base of Materials and Chemical Engineering - there is a weak link to the established and dominant USA, French and German manufacturers - so that new Developments would need strong support to avoid being purchased.

The UK is very strong on subsurface evaluation and geo-engineering technologies because of the North Sea developments.

Likewise UK expertise in the whole supply chain of design, fabrication and installation of offshore equipment is uniquely strong. There are large companies and SMEs to fill many niches.

Financing, design and management of power and offshore projects are areas where the UK is perceived to be strong. The City of London is a major world centre for this. Carbon trading, relevant to EU-ETS, CDM and JIP, is undertaken through London markets.

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Table 2.1: UK Capabilities

                                     
 UK Capability  Area  Market potential
High Subsurface geological and engineering World-leading offshore hydrocarbon techniques
High Coal-fired supercritical boilers Manufacturer within world top 5
High Oxyfuel burners Manufacturers’ research within world top 5
High Air separation units for oxyfuel Excellent chemical engineering research, weak industry
High Turbines: gas and steam Two or more world leading companies
High Onshore pipes Methane established technology
High Offshore pipes UK subsidiaries of global companies
High Finance of projects City of London is a world centre + banks
High Carbon trading World centre
High Design of capture add-on Innovative companies and researchers
Medium Coal power station International competition
Medium Gas power station International competition
Medium CO2 compression One strong company
Medium Offshore EOR mechanical and geo-engineering Will be needed to develop for EOR in UK, techniques could then be applied internationally
Medium Gasifiers of solid fuel Research active, and industry heritage from chemical industry and national coal and power laboratories
Low Membranes for separation of CO2, O2 Excellent materials research, Large specialist potential
Low Solvent CO2 capture Large market for new variants, no focus
Low CO2 pipeline Will be needed for EOR in UK
Low Design of “capture ready” add-on Will be needed in UK, China

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Section :

Table 3.1: Research Funding | Table 3.2: Key Research Providers

World-class research on CCS has been undertaken since the 1990’s by the British Geological Survey, funded by the NERC, by a series of EU Programmes, and by industry. The BGS has tended to focus on transport and geological storage, and is very strongly involved in EU and worldwide networks. Existing staff are over-committed with the BERR competition, and increased capacity may be necessary.

BERR (formerly DTI) has funded a series of studies emerging from its coal technology and clean coal programmes - now in Energy sources/Sustainable technologies, operated by Technology Strategy Board. These are by a variety of contractors, often including AEA Energy and Environment (formerly FES), on all aspects of CCS - with extensive compilation of power plant data, evaluation or transport technical risks and markets. This has been less detailed on the geological aspects. Plymouth Marine Laboratory is the only (NERC-funded) institute to focus  on ocean impacts  of CCS at present, in the context of their basic work on shallow seas.

UK Universities have significantly coordinated CCS activity since 2004, enabled by the TSEC programme funded by NERC, EPSRC and ESRC; the UKCCSC coordinates that research activity of 14 Universities and institutes, and this is by far the largest virtual cluster of UK research activity. There is no training capacity specifically directed to CCS, but individual academics with UKCCSC have related PhD students. The Scottish Funding Council has enabled creation of a University Centre for CCS at Edinburgh and Heriot-Watt; this group has world-class expertise in subsurface geology and geophysics evaluation, geo-engineering and EOR, and forms the UK’s largest physical cluster for that speciality. Nottingham has formed an institute for novel carbon capture technologies, partly be grouping existing staff and new recruitment. Edinburgh and Heriot-Watt are currently forming a new Centre  of carbon Capture, by grouping existing staff and 12 new recruitments. UKERC has experience of monitoring CCS developments, cross-compared to other energy technologies.

A large amount of “capable” research is undertaken within conventional within science and engineering, but not badged as carbon capture or storage. This is especially within earth and environmental sciences, as well as general and chemical engineering. Management and business studies dominate  among the humanities, with Tyndall (Manchester) and Bath hosting large research groups. Social science contributions are diffuse. There are also a small number of mathematicians and statisticians engaged in research in the area.

Data in 2006 was solicited by e-mail to individual academics within the UKCCSC. This has been up-dated in 2007 via a new round of e-mail solicitation. The coverage has been improved somewhat - not least with regard to capture-related research.  This  reflects a  broader range of methods used for identifying researchers - mainly a news flow in national public and technical media, but also a search of EPSRC-funded projects, as well as information passed on through UKERC and UKCCSC networks during the year. Replies from 2006 have been retained in those cases where we received no 2007 reply (denoted with a * in table 3.2).

The reliance on self-reported data tends to give an over-estimate of people involved in  CCS research. This is due to the difficulty is assigning part-time effort, and to some duplication of reporting so that an individual may be double counted within, say, UKERC and University. A search of academic web-sites for CCS activity would yield much lower numbers of personnel involved, in many cases zero for individual institutions. This tends to give an under-estimate, due to the perennial problems of up-dating web information.

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Table 3.1: Research Funding

               
 Programme  Funding Agency  Description  Committed Funds  Period  Representative Annual Spend
TSEC carbon management NERC/EPSRC/ESRC The UK Carbon Capture and Storage Consortium (UKCCSC) is a consortium of engineering, technological, natural, environmental, social and economic scientists in 12 universities and 2 NERC Institutes. It undertakes integrated whole-system research. Sub-topics covered include CO2 capture, transport and usage, geological storage, CCS & the environment, social processes, geographic information (GIS), dissemination, economic analysis, energy system modelling, dynamic pathways of change. £2m 05 -08 £666k
Scottish Centre for Carbon Storage SCCS Scottish Funding Council, University of Edinburgh, Heriot-Watt University Start-up funds for key research staff, to become self-funding within 4 years. Focus on CO2 storage, EOR, aquifer injection, leakage and monitoring. Industry-funded sponsor group £2.6m 04 - 08 £650k
Scottish Centre for Carbon Capture EPSRC
Scottish Funding Council
Scottish Enterprise
University of Edinburgh
Heriot-Watt University
Creating capacity by grouping existing staff and recruiting new staff, to apply chemical engineering and process engineering to CO2 capture at power plants. A strand of activity also investigates sequestration from air by pyrolysis of wood and crop, and soil re-fertilisation by biochar £5M 08-13 £1M
Nottingham University EPSRC Grouping existing staff on Energy and new recruitment to a Centre for Innovation in Carbon Capture and Storage CICCS £1.1M 07-12 £210k
UK Energy Research Centre NERC/EPSRC/ESRC UKERC provides an integrated assessment and appraisal function, both vertically within different energy sectors, and crucially laterally to compare and relate between different sectors of current and future sustainable energy technologies. A strand on carbon management in Future Sources of Energy, and CCS Environmental Impacts within Sustainability. £350k (of £12m) 04 -09 £70k
Annual calls for proposal BCURA BCURA (the British Coal utilisation research Association) funds, coal-related research, including a few efficiency or CCS-oriented projects.
(Bi)-Annual call TSB Carbon Abatement Technologies are now operated by TSB, instead of BERR (DTI) 5M £2M / yr in 2008
Responsive Mode NERC University of Cambridge lead an academic consortium on fundamental geochemistry of CO2-rock interaction. 5M 08-13 1M

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Table 3.2: Key Research Providers

                                                                     
 Name  Description  Sub-topics covered  No of staff  Field
Centre for Sustainable Technologies,
School of the Built Environment,
University of Ulster
The Centre for Sustainable Technologies (CST) is a multi-disciplinary research centre tackling many aspects of the diverse sustainability agenda. CST research can be broadly divided into three areas: renewable energy, clean combustion of fuels and energy efficiency in buildings and industry.
  • Simulation of capture and combustion
4 staff and 2 PhD Architecture and the Built Environment
Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML) PML research is aimed at reducing uncertainty about the processes that take place within the marine environment. Developing an understanding of ecological processes helps to quantify risks and minimise them through effective management.
  • Ocean ecology
  • Ocean currents
  • Effects of atmospheric and marine CO2 on ecosystems
  • Environmental chemistry
  • QSAR-based modelling
  • Biomarker development and validation
  • Remote/satellite surveillance
  • Interpretation of complex information
  • Simulation, modelling
5 full time research staff, 9 total Biological Sciences
School of Biosciences,
University of Nottingham
Internationally recognised for an outstanding quality of teaching and research, the School of Biosciences is divided into 5 academic divisions:-
Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, Animal Physiology, Nutritional Sciences, Plant Sciences, Food Sciences.
  • Detection of soil CO2
  • Effects of enhanced CO2 on biota
  • Dispersion of CO2 release
5 people Biological Sciences
* School of Construction Management and Engineering,
University of Reading
The School’s research has a world-wide reputation for quality and innovation and has been influential in developing and improving the processes and techniques of the construction and development industry. Research priorities reflect the constantly changing needs of the construction and engineering sector.
  • Fossil fuel lifecycle cost modelling
  • Fossil fuel emissions
  • Integrated multi-disciplinary optimization of energy systems
  • Socio-Techno-Economic Modelling
1 staff, 1 PostDoc, 2 MSc Built Environment
Policy Research in Engineering, Science and Technology (PREST)
Manchester Business School,
University of Manchester
PREST undertakes research and advisory work, and provides research training in the fields of science and technology policy and management studies through postgraduate degrees and topic-orientated short courses.

These staff are also part of Tyndall (North)
  • Stakeholder perceptions
  • Public perceptions
  • Policy analysis of CCS from socio-political and institutional perspectives
  • Energy scenarios and their assessment
  • Sustainability appraisal
2 staff, 3 PostDoc Business and Management Studies
* Judge Business School,
University of Cambridge
Research at the Judge Business School aims to identify ways to improve business performance, to develop theory and methodology and to inform policy and practice in the public and private sector. Research centres include: the Centre for Corporate Governance, the Centre for Financial Research, the Centre for International Business and Management and Cambridge University Health.
  • Public acceptability
  • Stakeholder analysis
  • Integrated assessment
  • Policy evolution
  • International environmental negotiations
1 staff, 1 RA, 1 PhD Business and Management Studies
Engineering Doctorate Training Centre - Efficient Power from Fossil Energy and Carbon Capture Technologies,
the University of Nottingham
This EngD Centre will produce research leaders to tackle the major national and international challenges over the next 15 years in implementing new power plant to generate electricity more efficiently using fossil energy with near zero emissions, involving the successful demonstration of CO2 capture, and reducing CO2 emissions generally from coal utilisation, including iron making. Engineering
Sussex Energy Group / SPRU - Science and Technology Policy Research,
University of Sussex
The Sussex Energy Group is one of the largest groups of social scientists conducting research on climate change and energy issues in the UK. It is core funded by the ESRC under the Research Councils’ Towards a Sustainable Energy Economy (TSEC) programme. Through SEG, the University of Sussex is a partner in the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research. The main objective of the Group is to respond to challenges set out in the UK Energy White Paper of 2003 that require profound changes in our energy system. The Group takes an inter-disciplinary, systems perspective, recognising the scale and complexity of the challenge and the pervasiveness of uncertainties.
  • CCS economics and incentives for innovation and deployment
  • Corporate capabilities in CCS technologies
4 staff Business and Management Studies
Politics and International Studies
* Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology,
Imperial College
Research is organised into eleven multidisciplinary focus areas which cover most aspects of chemical engineering and related scientific disciplines.
  • CCS in coal seams
  • Phase equilibria of fluids
4 staff,
4 PhD
Chemical Engineering
School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials,
Newcastle University
The School received a 5-rating in RAE2001. The School s research mission is to deliver leading-edge research to address the major societal challenges we face in the areas of clean water, low-carbon energy, bioprocessing and sustainability while performing fundamental chemical engineering research to underpin this activity.
  • CO2 separation from combustion processes using ceramic membranes.
9 staff, 4 PostDoc, 10 PhD. These numbers include non-CCS research. Chemical Engineering
Chemical Engineering,
University of Cambridge
Research interests in the Department of Chemical Engineering cover a broad range of topics concerned with Chemical, Biochemical and Process Engineering.
The academic staff are active in one or more of four research themes: Modelling, Measurement, Microstructure Engineering, Processes
  • Fluidised reaction systems for clean coal plants
  • CO2 separation
3 staff Chemical Engineering
Institute for Materials and Processes,
University of Edinburgh
The Institute for Materials and Processes joins researchers from materials science, materials synthesis and processing, and manufacturing optimisation. The objectives of the institute are to carry out world-class research on the design, synthesis, processing, properties and applications of materials, to develop relevant research tools, and to provide high quality training in research for both postgraduate students and postdoctoral researchers. These staff are part of the Scottish Centre for Carbon Storage
  • CO2 separation
3 staff
3 PostDoc
6 PhD
Chemical Engineering
Metallurgy and Materials
* Department of Earth Sciences,
University of Bristol
Research is focused on five groups, with an emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration between them: Deep Earth, Isotope Geochemistry, Volcanology, Sedimentology and Fluid Flows, Earth System Science and Aqueous, Geochemistry, Palaeobiology and Biodiversity
  • Passive seismic monitoring
  • Predicting 4d seismic properties
  • Linked seismic and geomechanical modelling
2 staff,
1 PostDoc,
1 PG
Earth Sciences
Environmental Sciences
* Department of Earth Sciences
University of Cambridge
Research areas include Geophysics & Tectonics, Basin and Crustal Development, Sedimentology, Igneous and Metamorphic Studies, Mineralogy and Mineral Physics, Palaeobiology and Palaeoecology, Environmental Change and Marine Geochemistry.
  • Modelling and imaging CO2 flows at Sleipner
  • Thermodynamics, kinetics and geochemical signatures of reaction processes in reservoirs
  • Geochemical/isotopic monitoring of reactions
3 staff
1 PostDoc
1 PhD
Earth Sciences
Environmental Sciences
* School of Geosciences,
University of Edinburgh
The School is a leading international centre for research into GeoSciences.
An industry sponsored group exists

These staff are part of the Scottish Centre for Carbon Storage
  • Reactions of CO2 in reservoirs
  • Natural analogues to CCS
  • CO2 leakage rates
  • Monitoring of CO2
  • Detection of dissolved CO2
  • Whole system CCS
  • CPD courses CCS
5 staff,
7 PostDoc,
6 PhD
Earth Sciences
Environmental Sciences
Earth Surface Dynamics Research Group,
Department of Geographical and Earth Sciences
University of Glasgow
This interdisciplinary research group aims to develop an integrated understanding of the evolution of the Earth’s surface and near-surface environments
  • Subsurface CO2 flow
  • Effects of faults
  • CO2 leakage effects
1 staff, 1 PhD Earth Sciences
Environmental Sciences
Department of Earth Science and Engineering,
Imperial College
Engineering solutions are used to provide the technology to solve problems in fundamental science, and fundamental science is used to provide the insight to solve applied problems of practical engineering.
  • CO2 storage in hydrocarbon reservoirs and aquifers
  • CO2 multiphase flow properties
  • CO2 in coal beds
  • CO2 storage security
3 staff,
c. 7 RA/PhD
not directly engaged on CCS
Earth Sciences
Environmental Sciences
* School of Earth and Environment and the Rock Deformation Research Group,
University of Leeds
Research interests span studies of the Earth, the hydrosphere and the atmosphere, and issues of environmental management and sustainability. Research is grouped into four Institutes (Atmospheric Science, Geological Sciences, Geophysics and Tectonics and Sustainability Research). The Rock Deformation Research Group is an established market leader in structural geology, research and consultancy. Based in Leeds UK, RDR offers a wide range of services to hydrocarbon and mineral industries worldwide.
  • Sub-surface flow of fluids
  • Multi-phase flow in rocks
  • Mineral cementation
  • Fracturing and fluid flow
  • Faults and seal
  • Geochemical reaction kinetics
  • Ion exchange capacity of reservoir rocks
2 staff,
1 PostDoc
1 MSc,
1 PhD
Earth Sciences
Environmental Sciences
School of Civil Engineering and Geoscience and School of Marine Science and Technology,
University of Newcastle
The traditional research strengths of the School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences (CEG) lie in the fields of Civil Engineering, Transport, Geomatics, Environmental Engineering, Water Resources, Soils, Biogeochemistry and Energy Resources.
Marine Technology at Newcastle leads research into design, offshore engineering, marine engineering, computational fluid dynamics, high-performance computing, hydrodynamics and decision support work.
  • Geological seal integrity
  • Pipeline engineering (offshore/onshore)
  • Hydraulic and risk analysis
  • Phase modelling
  • GIS technology : routing studies
  • Ship design
  • Offshore engineering
4 Staff
2 PostDoc
Earth Sciences
Environmental Sciences
Civil Engineering
British Geological Survey (BGS) BGS’s Sustainable and Renewable Energy Programme researches carbon dioxide capture and geological storage, geothermal energy, underground storage of natural gas and hydrogen, UK onshore energy resources, new exploitation technologies for coal and UK subsurface reservoirs and UK subsurface geology in general. BGS has a strong track record in CCS-related research stretching back to 1991.
BGS has contributed to many of the EU Framework programme projects on CCS and supplied Lead Authors to the IPCC Special Report on CCS and the CCS section of the revised IPCC guidelines for compiling greenhouse gas inventories. It has also contributed to the OSPAR Framework for Risk Assessment and Management and the London Convention Waste Assessment Guideline for CO2 storage in sub-sea geological formations. Part of BGS Keyworth is contracted to BERR 2008-09 to review CCS competition technical issues and bids.
  • CCS monitoring and verification
  • UK and generic CO2 storage capacity research
  • Geochemical experimentation into CO2 water/rock reactions under subsurface conditions
  • CO2 clathrates
At any one time, up to 16 research and technical staff may be working on CCS.
Core group of 5 staff at Keyworth
5 staff part-time at Edinburgh
Earth Sciences
Scottish Centre for Carbon Storage This grouping is funded by the Scottish Higher Education Funding Council to apply and extend established world-class expertise based on petroleum and hydrocarbon geoscience in: geology, geophysics, geo-engineering and subsurface fluid flow. A particular feature is the long-established research collaboration relationships with oil companies worldwide. This has now been extended to form a University to CCS industry consortium

These staff are at
University of Edinburgh
Heriot Watt University
BGS (Edinburgh)
  • Experimental PVT studies of CO2 with varying hydrocarbons
  • Hydrates and clathrates in porous media and pipes
  • Seismic processing and interpretation
  • Novel seismic survey acquisition and processing
  • Micro-seismicity in real-time to determine fluid migration
  • Rock physics experiments of mudrock seal deformation and re-seal
  • Petrographic investigation of CO2-brine and rock interaction
  • Fluid migration tracing by natural isotopes and artificial tracers
  • Geochemical interaction simulation of CO2 -brine-hydrocarbon
  • Fluid migration modelling through overburden and in aquifers
  • Natural analogue studies to determine durability and processes
  • Mudrock seal petrology, and permeability modelling
  • Integration with UK energy research networks: renewables, fossil, nuclear
  • Regional assessment of aquifers, structures and seals
21 academic staff
7 PostDoc
15 PhD
6 MSc
Earth Sciences
Environmental Sciences
Chemistry
Physics
Applied Mathematics
Statistics and Operational Research
General Engineering
Education
* Business School,
University of Aberdeen
University of Aberdeen Business School (UABS) was formed by a merger of the departments of Accountancy-Finance, Economics, Property and Management. Within the Business School, the Department of Economics at Aberdeen has a well-established tradition of research in applied economics, particularly in the areas of Labour Economics and Natural Resource Economics.
  • Social processes and CCS
2 staff, 1 PostDoc Economics and Econometrics
* Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering,
Imperial College
Research activities within the Department are organised broadly into five groups: Circuits & Systems, Communications & Signal Processing, Control & Power, Intelligent Systems & Networks and Optical & Semiconductor Devices
  • National Grid simulation
1 staff,
1 RA
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
* School of Applied Sciences,
Cranfield University
Key areas of research relate to materials, manufacturing, natural resources and sustainable systems.
  • Gas cleaning
  • Fuel-related processes
3 total General Engineering
Institute of Petroleum Engineering,
Heriot-Watt University
The Institute is multi-disciplinary and focuses on upstream oil and gas resources. It was founded in 1975 to work with the emerging upstream North Sea industry and now has well established industrial and academic links around the world. Most of the research projects are supported by several industrial partners, sometimes in collaboration with public sector funding.

These staff are listed as Scottish Centre for Carbon Storage
  • Geophysics
  • Reservoir characterisation
  • Flow in porous media
  • PVT and reservoir fluids, Tracers
  • Gas hydrates
  • Hydrocarbon recovery processes, EOR, EGR
  • Geo and rock mechanics
  • Reservoir chemistry and production
  • CO2 Storage
11 staff, 6 PhD General Engineering
School of Chemical Engineering, Heriot-Watt University Research focused on principles of novel carbon capture or CO2 separation
  • Ionic solvents
  • Membranes
  • Gas-liquid separation
4 staff
2 PhD
Genral engineering
* School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering,
University of Nottingham
SChEME is home to novel research in the areas of microwave processing to extract rare and valuable minerals, green chemistry, clean and green water, nanotechnology, magnetic levitation and carbon dioxide capture to reduce the risk of global warming.
  • CO2 capture
  • Low temperature absorption
  • Membranes
  • Oxy-fuel firing
Total (not all CCS): 6 staff, 8 PostDoc, >12 PG General Engineering
CICCS Centre for Innovation in Carbon Capture and Storage,
University of Nottingham
The Centre for Innovation in Carbon Capture and Storage (CICCS) works on research at the interface of science and engineering, and international cooperation in order to accelerate technological innovation in the field and lead to a wider deployment of carbon capture and storage. The Centre will also have a strong programme on knowledge transfer and training with a range of opportunities for industrial engagement.
  • Cleaner coal
  • CO2 capture
  • Light harvesting
  • Mineral cabonation
  • Storage
  • Monitoring
  • Public acceptability, regulatory issues and economy
16 staff (not all full time) General Engineering
Mathematics
Bioscience
Geography
Earth Science
School of Engineering, Energy Technology Centre
Cranfield University
Research in the School of Engineering is focused on four research themes centered on and facing nationally important industrial sectors: aerospace engineering and air transport, computational science and engineering, engineering photonics, structures and machine systems.
  • Modelling of combustion and heat transfer
  • CO2 separation
1 staff
General engineering
Energy and Resources Research Institute,
Leeds University
The Vision is “To be recognised for internationally leading research in the sustainable development of natural resources, the sustainable use of fossil fuels and the development of renewable and future fuels.”
ERRI is involved in many forefront areas of energy and resource research, with an activity spectrum ranging from environmental and pollution monitoring to developing biomass resources and processes.
  • Modelling of Pulverised Coal Combustion
3 staff
2 PhD
General engineering
* School of Geography,
University of Nottingham
The School’s research community is organised into five Research themes: Cultural and historical geography, environmental management and policy, geographical information science, new economic geographies, environmental and geomorphological sciences.
  • Effects of CO2 leakage on flora
  • Climate change
2 staff Geography
Environmental Sciences
Centre for Law and the Environment,
University College London
The main goals of the Centre are to advance research and teaching and explore the role of law in meeting contemporary environmental challenges. The Centre is committed to treating domestic law (UK), regional (European Union) and international aspects of environmental law in a comprehensive and integrated manner.
  • Analysis of the key legal questions arising from CCS activities
3 staff Law
* Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Imperial College
Research activities stem from a strong base of fundamental engineering research that provides the foundation for practical applications in energy, transport, defence and health care sectors.
  • Power plant design
  • Supercritical coal plant
  • Oxyfuel combustion
  • Biomass co-combustion
  • Carbon capture, retrofiting
  • Novel capture technologies
4 staff
2 RA
4 PhD
Mechanical, Aeronautical and Manufacturing Engineering
* Robert Gordon University RGU in Aberdeen is focused on work relevant to the offshore and energy industries.
  • Membrane separation of CO2 flue gas
  • Acid Gas Removal from Natural Gas Streams
  • Hydrogen Production
  • Dehydration of hydrogen
  • Membrane Reactor Research
  • Synthesis Gas Operation
3 staff
2 PDRA
1 PhD
Mechanical, Aeronautical and Manufacturing Engineering
Department of Materials,
Imperial College
The department has research interests ranging from metals, biomaterials and tissue engineering, nanotechnology and ceramics, particularly SOFCs and related technologies.
  • Ceramic oxygen separation membranes for CCS
  • Partial oxidation membranes for Pre-Combustion De-Carbonisation
  • Ash and coal properties in oxyfuel combustion
2 Staff,
1 PG,
some UG project students
Metallurgy and Materials

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Section :

Table 4.1: Research Funding | Table 4.2: Key Research Providers

Applied research is provided by a range of consultancy companies and organisations with expertise in the sectors of technology appraisal, environment, or geoscience. Major trans-national companies have some very significant research and technology teams, some of this could be considered as being based in the UK and these will sometimes participate in, or be co-funded by, publicly-funded projects, especially from DTI/BERR/TSB.

BERR and the IEA GHG programme have also  been key strategic funders. Substantial activity is occurring in other countries’ national laboratories and research organisations. Regional development agencies, Scottish Enterprise, and ITI Scotland have funded evaluations which are perceived to have potential value for their position, but have no known long-term strategy for CCS. NGOs, the Carbon Trust, the Sustainable Development Commission etc, have frequently mentioned CCS as one of many low carbon options but there is no focused campaign to evaluate and provide new information.

Energy Technology Institute plans to identify CCS as one of 5 focus areas from 2008.

Company responses cover the “core” CCS industries of electricity generators and oil and gas. Manufacturing companies are included in the role of suppliers to the core industries. Related service industries include legal firms, and consultants - mainly in engineering.

Potential research providers were identified from membership of the CCS trade association in early May 2006 (CCSA), and from attendance at CCS-related meetings, and contacted by email. In those cases where we have not received new replies in 2007, last year’s data is marked with an *.

Our coverage may be low. Compare approximately 10 identified providers of applied research with the approximately 50 members of CCSA. However, it is true that not all CCSA members do conduct any applied research. Some companies who do undertake  research into CCS may also have chosen not to supply information for commercial reasons. The data relating to EU projects in section 8 suggest that more companies are involved in research than those listed here.

IEA GHG is excluded, as this is not UK-national, although it is based in the UK. IEA GHG is also covered in section 9.

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Table 4.1: Research Funding

       
 Programme  Funding Agency  Description  Committed Funds  Period  Representative Annual Spend
DTI Clean Coal and Carbon Abatement Technologies (CAT strategy) TSB (formerly BERR) Arms length body, responsible to DIUS (2008) Formerly BERR and then DTI fossil fuels. Focused on efficiency improvements and carbon-free power from fossil fuel. This includes Enhanced Oil Recovery, which does not seem to be tackled by DTI Oil and Gas £35m 07-11 £7m
Energy Sources
Cleaner fossil fuels technology
BERR This is operated under the remit of the CAT Programme (Carbon Abatement Technology). Cleaner Fossil Fuels Technology covers a range of technologies which deal with the emissions generated by fossil fuel power generation. The emphasis is currently on reducing emissions from coal-fired power generation
Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEA GHG) IEA The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEA GHG) is an Implementing Agreement of the International Energy Agency, and was founded in 1991. It is a major international research collaboration that assesses technologies capable of achieving deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. CCS is a major component of the programme.
Ad-hoc NGO
CCSA
C Trust
Sust Dev Comm. See text above
No coherent data
Work has been undertaken by Green Alliance, Friends of the Earth, Greenpeace. None known to be focused on CCS, but rather CCS placed in context of Energy policy or CO2 reduction

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Table 4.2: Key Research Providers

                       
 Name  Description  Sub-topics covered  No of Staff  Sector
* Air Products Manufacturer of atmospheric gases, process and specialty gases, performance materials and chemical intermediates. The company has built leading positions in key growth markets, such as semiconductor materials, refinery hydrogen, home healthcare services, natural gas liquefaction, and advanced coatings and adhesives. Also potentially relevant for Oxyfuel firing. HQ in USA
  • Cryogenics
  • Materials
UK CCS budget 3m USD Manufacturing
British Geological Survey Responsible for advising the UK government on all aspects of geoscience as well as providing impartial geological advice to industry, academia and the public.
  • Geology
  • Infrastructure
  • Carbon capture and storage
  • International policy advice
  • Reservoir Characterisation, Storage & Production
  • Regional Subsurface Structure
  • Gas Storage
  • Onshore Hydrocarbon & Coal Resources
16 staff (research and technical),
1 PhD.
Also 4 staff for hydrates
7 for non-CCS CO2.
R&D science and engineering
Other non-departmental public body
Doosan Babcock Energy Provide a range of services in support of power generation. Range of specialist products and services to clients across the thermal power, petrochemical and process, nuclear, pharmaceutical, oil and gas and industrial markets. Global company with offices and locations across all the major energy markets. Major coal boiler R&D and manufacturing facility at Renfrew UK.
  • Capture-ready supercritical coal-fired boilers
  • Oxy-fuel firing of coal CCS
  • Amine scrubbing
  • Integration of CC into power plant design, retrofits
10+ personnel
Budget £2m p.a.
Whole Technology Centre 250 staff
R&D science and engineering
Manufacturing
Consulting engineers
Environmental Resources Management Ltd Environmental Resources Management (ERM) is one of the world s leading providers of environmental consulting services. ERM has over 100 offices in 40 countries and employ over 3,000 staff. ERM is committed to providing a service that is consistent, professional and of the highest quality. Delivery of innovative solutions for leading business and government clients, assisting them in managing their environmental and related risks.
  • Policies, laws, regulations and incentives.
20 - 30 people with CCS expertise Management Consulting
E.ON Energy E.ON UK is the UK s largest integrated power and gas company, generating and distributing electricity and supplying power and gas to domestic and business customers nationwide. Part of the E.ON group, the world’s largest investor-owned energy services provider, with ambition to becoming the world’s leading power and gas company.
  • Capture
  • Storage
  • Transportation
  • Utilisation areas
Around £550k not including project development activities Approximately 6 full time people (Around 12 part time people) Electricity and gas
* Hammonds Hammonds is a leading commercial law firm with offices throughout the UK, Europe and in Asia Regulatory regime:
  • Long-term liability
  • Monitoring
  • Carbon crediting
  • Regulatory incentives/ obstacles
  • Pipeline regulations
c.12 (not full time) Legal activities
Herbert Smith Leading and full-service international legal practice with a 1,100-lawyer network across Europe, Asia and the Middle East. UK firm of the year 2006 (International Law Office Client Choice Awards). The global energy team has consistently been recognised as a top-tier practice by leading legal directories for the last seven years.
Have advised on the leading UK deals to date (including Centrica/Progressive, BP/Rio Tinto investments in CCS in UK, US and Australia). Hammonds are contributors to CCSA, London Accord and other CCS and aligned organisations on the legal aspects of their research.
  • Treatment of CCS under the EU ETS
  • Interface with environmental legislation
  • International law requirements and incentives (eg. marine and climate change conventions)
  • Offshore decommissioning obligations
  • Planning issues
  • On and offshore pipeline regulation
  • Project development including: corporate structures, fuel supply and off-take arrangements, feed arrangements and financing
  • Development and regulation of power plants
  • Gas storage
6-8 lawyers currently engaged on CCS related matters. Legal activities
ILF Consulting Engineers Ltd ILF is an international design consultant specialising in the transportation and storage of all hydrocarbons and water. This includes pipelines, terminals, underground and above ground storage and safety monitoring systems. ILF has designed over 2000 pipelines around the world which includes the transportation of high CO2 content gases and gases in the supercritical phase. ILF also has some design and operational experience of gas storage in on-shore aquifers.
  • Pipelines
  • Optimisation along the supply chain
  • Underground gas storage.
€ 100 000 Consulting Engineers
Management Consulting
* Norton Rose International lawyers specialising in corporate finance, financial institutions, energy and utilities, technology and transport.
  • Legal aspects of CCS
5 lawyers Legal activities
* Schlumberger Carbon Services A leading oilfield services provider, delivering superior results and improved E&P performance for oil and gas companies around the world. Schlumberger Carbon Services are in Abingdon. This is part of a much larger carbon services group worldwide, headquartered in Paris
  • All CO2 engineering services
  • Reservoir modelling of CO2 storage fields
  • Wireline detection of CO2
  • Monitoring technologies
  • Cement technologies
2 Energy extraction
* Scottish & Southern Scottish and Southern Energy is one of the largest energy companies in the UK, involved in the generation, transmission, distribution and supply of electricity; energy trading; the storage, distribution and supply of gas; electrical and utility contracting; and telecoms. HQ Perth, Scotland.
  • Gas fired CCS plants
  • Coal fired CCS plants
  • Integrated gasification
  • Coal-bed methane
  • Legal, environment
  • Health & Safety
c. 10 people Electricity and gas
RWE Npower is part of the German RWE group
  • Experimental slipstream capture of CO2
2 Electricity and gas

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Section :

Table 5.1: Demonstration Funding Programmes | Table 5.2: Major Demonstration Projects

Demonstration funding has been allocated by the BERR, as part of its CAT strategy. This was initially £25m, and was then increased by the Chancellor to £35m in a pre-budget statement 2005. This is small compared to 1) the £100m minimum requested by the BERR advisory board, and 2) the cost of a gas or IGCC power station of £400-1,500m, and 3) the USA FutureGen initiative of $1,500m. As part of the BERR CCS competition, Government has indicated that it intends  to pay for the costs of adding capture (whilst the technology is developed), but not the whole cost of the plants. BERR will also underwrite the price difference of Demonstration CCS electricity and the EU-ETS price. This is estimated to be £300-500M Capex and unknown Opex.

The UK-China collaboration is a growing area for UK CCS researchers and much of this activity is currently managed by DEFRA, with £3.5M NZEC funding. There could also be scope to greatly increase this, and include a larger and specific element of capacity building and UK training of Chinese students in UK Universities.

Many more demonstration plans have been announced in 2007-08. Many companies have now declared that they are planning CCS investments. This increased level of publicly declared interest is likely, at least in part, a result of the government competition.

No large investment decision has yet been made though. An experimental 1MW post-combustion capture  plant at Aberthaw will be independently built by RWE npower.

Progressive Energy/Centrica are funding investigating development of a pre-combustion IGCC with CCS by 2012.

Global Energy has stated it wishes to re-open the Westfield gasifier as an IGCC with CCS in 2008 but needs funding.

It seems that it will take at least 2012 until the first full CCS systems up and running in the UK.

Pre-combustion dominates, and there are as yet no plans for a UK  oxyfuel plant.

The desk-study plans for CO2 gathering and transport networks in Tees-side, Yorkshire, Mersey basin, and Scotland may have coordinating and catalyzing effects on capture and storage investments in those regions.

All projects listed in Table 5.2 depend on some type of funding contribution from the Government, and have been identified from news published during 2007 / 2008.

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Table 5.1: Demonstration Funding Programmes

     
 Programme  Funding Agency  Description  Committed Funds  Period  Representative Annual Spend
Carbon Abatement technology (CAT) BERR (now TSB) Enabling one or more pilots to go ahead in UK, within an EU context, to gain experience in CCS To be allocated end 2006 onwards £35m 2007 2011 £7
UK-China bilateral DEFRA
& BERR
The project aims to demonstrate coal-fired power generation with carbon capture and storage technology in both China and the EU by 2020 Examine the viability of different technology options for the capture of carbon dioxide emissions from power generation for geological storage in China £3.5m 2006 2009 £1.15m
CCS Competition BERR Competitive bids during 2008, to win state aid enabling post-combustion capture to be fitted to a new or existing coal plant, and operated before end 2014 to produce electricity and send CO2 for storage. One Not specified
£300 M capture
£500M ???
09 -14
15-20
60M
100M

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Table 5.2: Major Demonstration Projects

                           
 Name  Description  Sub-topics covered  Total Project Cost  Public Sector Funder  Public Sector Funding  Period
Aberthaw, Wales Retrofit. Post-combustion: first experimental 1 MW, then demonstrator >25MW. RWE npower. Post-combustion £8.4m Decided, (2008) 2010
Westfield, Fife Re-development of gasification plant. Coal, but also biomass/waste. Global Energy. Pre-combustion £420m Planned, 2008 (CCS later?)
Tees Valley, Teesside New-build 800MW IGCC. Capture with hydrogen production. Centrica, Progressive Energy, Coots and Coastal Energy. Development agency Renew Tees Valley involved. Pre-combustion, pipeline, EOR/saline aquifer £750m Planned, start building 2009
Tilbury, Essex 1000 MW clean supercritical coal plant. Feasibility study. Use of Didcot power station as test facility. RWE npower. Post-combustion £700m Planned, 2012-16
Blyth, Northumberland New-build supercritical boiler. Feasibility. RWE npower Capture-ready plant (post-combustion) Planned, 2014
Kingsnorth, Kent Two 800MW supercritical coal plants. E.ON Post-combustion £1000m Planned
Killingholme, Humberside New-build 450MW IGCC. Feasibility study. E.ON Pre-combustion Planned
Immingham, Lincolnshire New-build 450MW IGCC. CHP. ConocoPhillips Pre-combustion On hold Oct 07
Hatfield, Yorkshire New-build 900MW IGCC. Powerfuel (Kuzbassrazrezugol) Pre-combustion Planned
Longannet, Fife and Cockenzie, East Lothian Retrofit with “capture-ready” supercritical boiler at both plants. Feasibility study. Scottish Power (Iberdrola). Post-combustion Capture-ready plants Planned
Yorkshire and Humber region Network. £0.1m feasibility study. Run by AMEC. Funded by the Yorkshire Forward development agency. BP, ConocoPhillips, Drax Power, E.ON, Powerfuels, Scottish and Southern and Shell support the project. Transport. Technical and economic aspects. 100k Underway
Scotland Network feasibility study. Managed by SCCS. Joint funding from Scottish Government and 8 companies Transport. Storage sites, Business model 200k Planned
Peterhead, Aberdeenshire; Miller North Sea oil reservoir Original plan: pre-combustion, hydrogen for 350MW power station. Plan abandoned by BP in 2007, but Scottish and Southern Energy still going ahead? Pre-combustion gas, transport, off-shore storage >£300m On hold as of May 07
Ferrybridge, Yorkshire Retrofit with 500MW “capture-ready” supercritical boiler. Scottish and Southern Energy Capture-ready plant On hold as of Oct 07

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Section :

Table 6.1: Research Facilities and Assets

Many organisations and universities have general facilities relating to energy, science or technology studies, which can be adapted to use for CCS work, but there are as yet only a few UK research facilities dedicated to CCS.

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Table 6.1: Research Facilities and Assets

     
 Name  Description  Type of asset  Number of Supporting Staff  Annual Operating Budget
Didcot, Oxfordshire Oxyfuel and post-combustion. Owned by RWE npower.
0.5 MW
Test facility
Ratcliffe-on-Soar, Nottinghamshire Oxyfuel. Owned by E.On.
1 MW
Test facility
Aberthaw, Wales RWE, post-combustion, coal slipstream pilot
1 MW
Test facility

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Section :

Table 7.1: Networks

Networks is here taken to mean only groupings with explicit and formal memberships. This excludes collaborative projects organised in other ways. For example, the Yorkshire-Forward-driven plan to establish a transport network, mentioned in section 5, which is supported by a distinct set of companies, but does not involve a membership as such. Research projects supported by groups of companies are not seen as more formal networks.

This covers networks in the UK only. There is substantial international activity on generic (and some UK) problems, funded and reported through networks listed in sections 8 and 9. Because of the cross-border nature of atmospheric CO2, and the generic similarity of capture technologies, and the nature of storage localities in the subsurface, the geographic locale of the network is not critical. International exchange is expected by Demonstration plants gaining EU support.

The Trade Association CCSA was formed early in2006, and focuses much industry expertise, but not yet onto projects. The UK Offshore Operators Association is also an important trade association in relation to CCS. Renew Tees Valley is a local collaboration in the Tees Valley between councils, but also involving companies in the area. The only academic network specific to the UK is the UKCCSC, and this arises only from the focus of a TSEC project funded by NERC.

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Table 7.1: Networks

       
 Network  Date Established  Description  Membership Profile  Activities
Carbon Capture and Storage Association (CCSA) 2006 Trade association spanning all industries connected with carbon capture and storage in the UK. About 20 organisations. Information exchange
Single point industry voice
UK Offshore Operators Association Trade association representing North Sea exploration and production industries, both major oil companies, and contractors 30 major UK hydrocarbon companies, 15 associates Information exchange
Single industry voice
Reports outlining views to Government
Renew Tees Valley Regional development agency. Companies also involved. Five borough councils New build power station with carbon capture
UK Carbon Capture and Storage Consortium (UKCCSC) 2005-08 The UKCCSC is a consortium of engineering, technological, natural, environmental, social and economic scientists. Academics. Information exchange
Research
Public and media information
Capacity building

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Section :

Table 8.1: EU Framework Programmes

Much work in the EU is undertaken by national organisations, such as Surveys, Research Institutes or Research laboratories. The UK has few of these. However, the UK participates in many EU networks. These are addressing generic trans-national problems of combustion technology, transport, and geological storage.

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Table 8.1: EU Framework Programmes

                                                           
 Project  Objectives  Action Line  Type of Action  UK Participants  Co-ordinator and Partners  Total Funding  EU Funding  Duration  Annual Spend
DECARBIT: Enabling advanced pre-combustion capture techniques and plants DECARBit responds to the urgent need for further research and development in advanced pre-combustion capture techniques to substantially reduce emissions of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel power plants. The project will accelerate the technology development and contribute to the deployment of large scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) plants in line with the adopted European policies for emission reductions. FP7: ENERGY-2007-5.1-01 Advanced pre-combustion capture techniques Large-scale integrating project ALSTOM Power Ltd, University of Ulster SINTEF Energiforskning AS, Norway

16 partners
€15.48m €10.22m 2008-1-1 to 2011-12-31

48 months
€2.56m
CESAR: CO2 Enhanced Separation and Recovery CESAR aims for a breakthrough in the development of low-cost post-combustion CO2 capture technology to provide economically feasible solutions for both new power plants and retrofit of existing power plants which are responsible for the majority of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions (worldwide, approx. 5,000 power plants emit around 11 GtCO2/year). FP7: ENERGY-2007-5.1-03 Advanced separation techniques Collaborative Project (small or medium scale focused project) Doosan Babcock Energy Limited, E.ON UK PLC, RWE NPower PLC Nederlandse Organisatie voor toegepast-natuurwetenschappelijk onderzoek - TNO, Netherlands

22 partners
€6.7m €4m 2008-02-01 to 2011-05-31

40 months
€1.2m
CAESAR: CArbon-free Electricity by SEWGS: Advanced materials, Reactor and process design The proposed project CAESAR is building on work currently performed with the FP6 IP CACHET. One of the four pre combustion CO2 capture technologies that are being developed in CACHET is the Sorption Enhanced Water Gas Shift (SEWGS) process. The SEWGS process produces hot, high pressure H2 in a catalytic CO shift reactor with simultaneous adsorption of CO2 on a high temperature adsorbent. FP7: ENERGY-2007-5.1-04 Separation techniques in gaseous fuel power generation (RTD) Small or medium-scale focused research project Air Products OLC, BP Exploration Operating Company Ltd Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands

5 partners
€3.14m €2.26m 2008-01-01 to 2011-12-31

48 months
€0.57m
STRACO2: Support to Regulatory Activities for Carbon Capture and Storage STRACO2 will support the ongoing development of a comprehensive regulatory framework in the European Union for CO2 capture and storage technologies (CCS) for zero emission applications. This will respond to the requirements of multi-stakeholder groups in Europe affected by these technologies and their applications both domestically in Europe and under future inclusion in emissions trading schemes and Kyoto mechanisms. FP7: ENERGY-2007-5+6.2-01 Support to regulatory activities for CO2 capture and storage Support actions Development Solutions Europe Ltd Bureau de recherches g ologiques et mini res, France

9 partners
€1.04m €0.86m 2008-01-01 to 2009-06-30

18 months
€0.57m
ENCAP: Enhanced Capture of CO2 The objective is to develop new pre-combustion CO2-capture technologies and processes for power generation based on fossil fuels - mainly hard coal, lignite and natural gas - that are conceived as affordable and clean, and which can be integrated with sustainable energy systems. FP6: SUSTDEV-1.2.7: M-L Capture and sequestration of CO2 Integrated project Mitsui Babcock
Alstom Power
BOC
University of Ulster
Vattenfall AB

27 partners
€22.17m €10.7m March 2004 - March 2009 €2.14m
CASTOR: CO2 from Capture to Storage To enable the capture and geological storage of 10 of the CO2 emissions of Europe, which corresponds to about 30 of CO2 emitted by European power and industrial plants. Sub-projects cover: Strategy for CO2 reduction; Post-combustion capture; and CO2 storage performance and risk assessment studies FP6-SUSTDEV-1.2.7: M-L
Capture and sequestration of CO2
Integrated project Natural Environment Research Council
Imperial College
Mitsui Babcock
Powergen
Institut Francais du Petrole

30 partners
€15.84m €8.5m February 2004 February 2008 €2.13m
CO2REMOVE: CO2 Geological Storage: Research into Monitoring and Verification Technology The aim is to test CO2 monitoring and verification technologies at real CO2 injection sites, specifically Sleipner, In Salah and Snøhvit and possibly additional sites as they begin to store CO2. At Sleipner it will continue monitoring where the SACS and CO2STORE projects left off FP6: SUSTDEV-1.2.7 Capture and sequestration of CO2 Integrated project Natural Environment Research Council, BP International Limited, Imperial College, Quintessa Ltd, IEA Environmental Projects Ltd Nederlandse Organisatie Voor Toegepast Natuurweten Schappelijk Onderzoek - TNO

23 partners
€15.05m €8.0m March 2006- Feb 2011
CACHET: Carbon Dioxide Capture and Hydrogen Production from Gaseous Fuels CACHET aims to develop technologies to significantly reduce the cost of CO2 capture from natural gas with H2 production. The primary objective is to reduce the cost of CO2 capture from current levels to 20-30 per tonne. FP6: SUSTDEV-
1.2.7 Capture and sequestration of CO2
Integrated Project BP Exploration Operating Company Ltd
E.ON UK PLC
Air Products Plc
Meggitt (UK) Ltd
BP Exploration Operating Company Ltd

28 partners
€13.45m €7.5m March 2006 - March 2009 €2.5m
CO2SINK: In-situ R&D Laboratory for Geological Storage of CO2 A better understanding of the science of CO2 sequestration is needed. The CO2SINK integrated project aims at developing this basis by injection of CO2 into a saline aquifer underneath the city of Ketzin near Berlin. FP6: SUSTDEV-1.2.7: M-L Capture and sequestration of CO2 Integrated Project University of Kent GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam

13 partners
€12.68m €8.7m April 2004 - April 2009 €1.74m
DYNAMIS: Towards Hydrogen and Electricity Production with Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage The main objective is to prepare the ground for large-scale European facilities producing hydrogen and electricity from fossil fuels with CO2 capture and geological storage. FP6: SUSTDEV-1.2.7 Capture and sequestration of CO2 Integrated Project Natural Environment Research Council
BP International Ltd
E.ON UK PLC
Progressive Energy Ltd
IEA Environmental Project Ltd
Sintef Energiforskning A/S

29 partners
€7.46m €4m March 2006 - March 2009 €1.3m
CO2GeoNet: Network of Excellence on Geological Sequestration of CO2 CO2GeoNet (13 institutes) contains a critical mass of research activity in the area of underground carbon dioxide (CO2) storage FP6-SUSTDEV-1.2.7: M-L Capture and sequestration of CO2 Network of excellence British Geological Survey
Heriot-Watt University
Imperial College
British Geological Survey

12 partners
Not Specified €6.0m April 2004 April 2009 €1.2m
EU GEOCAPACITY: Assessing European Capacity for Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide The GeoCapacity project will focus on countries in eastern, central and southern Europe not previously covered in detail. This project will provide the data required for the Europe wide adoption of CCS. SUSTDEV-1.2.7 Capture and sequestration of CO2 Specific Targeted Research Project NERC Danmarks og Groenlands Geologiske Undersoegelse

26 partners
€3.59m €1.9m January 2006 - January 2009 €0.6m
DESANNS: Advanced separation and storage of carbon dioxide: Design, Synthesis and Applications of Novel Nanoporous Sorbents CO2 that will be critically important in the future European H2 based economy. It is crucial to find a new route to capture and store CO2 produced during various industrial processes with different conditions. The present project aims to initiate novel synthesis strategies for adsorbents with specific properties with respect to gases, notably carbon dioxide, and operating conditions of industrial processes. FP6: SUSTDEV-1.2.7 Capture and sequestration of CO2 Specific Targeted Research Project University of St Andrews
University of Edinburgh
The Royal Institution of Great Britain
Centre national de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)

8 partners
€3.48m €2.5m January 2006 - January 2009 €0.8m
FENCO: Fossil Energy Coalition FENCO-ERA networks national R&D activities in fossil energy conversion and CO2 capture and storage. It provides a platform for information exchange on fossil fuel R&D activities at national and regional level; establishes a common knowledge base for zero emission power plants; and strengthens the European R&D and demonstration infrastructure through joint programming, management, personnel exchange and targeted integration activities. FP6 ERANET DTI
Future Energy Solutions (AEA Technology)
Forschungszentrum J lich Projekttr ger J lich

17 partners
€3.00m €3.00m Jun 2005 May 2009 €0.75m
ISCC: Innovative In Situ CO2 Capture Technology for Solid Fuel Gasification The proposed project aims on exploiting this potential to produce a gas stream in the regeneration process consisting of >95 CO2. FP6: SUSTDEV-1.2.7: M-L Capture and sequestration of CO2 Specific Targeted Research Project University of Ulster Universitaet Stuttgart

14 partners
€2.91m €1.9m January 2004 - January 2007 €0.63m
C3-CAPTURE: Calcium Cycle For Efficient and Low Cost CO2 Capture in fluidised bed systems The project aims on developing a dry CO2 capture system for atmospheric and pressurized fluidised bed boilers FP6: SUSTDEV-1.2.7: M-L Capture and sequestration of CO2 Specific Targeted Research Project Cranfield University Universitaet Stuttgart

12 partners
€2.72m €1.8m September 2005 - September 2008 €0.6m
HY2SEPS: Hybrid hydrogen - carbon dioxide separation systems The main goal of this project is the development of a hybrid membrane / Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) H2/CO2 separation process, which will be a part of a fossil fuel de-carbonisation process used for the pre-combustion CO2 capture FP6: SUSTDEV-1.2.7 Capture and sequestration of CO2 Specific Targeted Research Project Imperial College
Process Systems Enterprise
Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas

7 partners
€2.53m €1.56m September 2005 - October 2008 €0.52m
INCA-CO2: International Co-operation Actions on CO2 Capture and Storage Aimed at strengthening European excellence and enhancing technical competitiveness of Europe in the area of CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) FP6: SUSTDEV-2003-1.2.9: M-L Support to the strategic objectives of the programme Specific Support Action Alstom Power
BP International Ltd
NERC
Institut Francais du Petrole

10 partners
€0.71m €0.44m October 2004 - October 2007 €0.15m
ZEFPP: Zero Emission Fossil Fuel Power Plants The initial scope of the Platform aims at identifying and removing the obstacles to the creation of highly efficient power plants with near-zero emissions which will drastically reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuel use, particularly coal. This will include CO2 capture and storage, as well as clean conversion technologies leading to substantial improvements in plant efficiency, reliability and costs. European Technology Platform Alstom; British Geological Society; Mitsui Babcock; Shell Gas and Power (Advisory Council) European Commission 2004 -
GESTCO: European potential for geological storage of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion The principal objective of GESTCO is to make a major contribution to the reduction in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and so ensuring Europe a continued stable supply of affordable and environmentally acceptable energy. FP5: Economic and Efficient Energy for a Competitive Europe Cost sharing contracts Natural Environment Research Council Geological Survery of Denmark and Greenland

10 partners
€3.80m €0.19m 2000-03-01 to 2003-03-01

36 months
€0.063m
RECOPOL: Reduction of CO2 emission by means of CO2 storage in coal seams in the Silesian coal basin of Poland (management of ghg emissions) (RECOPOL) In this project the feasibility of greenhouse gas emission reduction by CO2 storage in subsurface coal seams is studied. Locally produced CO2 or flue gas from a power plant is injected in the coal at a selected test site in the Silesian Coal Basin (Poland), while CH4 is produced simultaneously. The CH4 can be used as fuel for clean energy generation, without net CO2 emissions. FP5: Cleaner Energy Systems, including Renewable Energies, Reduction of local and global environment degrading emissions Cost sharing contracts CRE Group Ltd Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research - TNO

11 partners
€3.74m €1.71m 2001-11-01 to 2005-07-31

45 months
€0.46m
NASCENT: Natural analogues to the storage of CO2 in the geological environment (NASCENT) NASCENT will address key issues of geological CO2 sequestration by using natural CO2 occurrences as analogues for geological repositories of anthropogenic CO2.The issues include the long-term safety and stability of storage underground and the potential environmental effects of leakage from an underground reservoir. The project will provide clear information to assess and support management of the potential risks to the environment and thus, it will make a direct contribution to the environmental protection objectives of the programme. FP5: Cleaner Energy Systems, including Renewable Energies, Reduction of local and global environment degrading emissions Cost sharing contracts BP Exploration Operating Company Ltd,
CRE Group Ltd,
Natural Environment Research Council
Natural Environment Research Council

12 partners
€3.29m €1.86m 2001-01-01 to 2004-04-30

40 months
€0.56m
GRACE: Grangemouth advanced CO2 Capture Project (GRACE) GRACE sets out a two-year programme that aims to develop technologies that will achieve a step change in the cost of capture and separation of carbon dioxide. In addition to further development of existing technologies, the project will research and develop new technologies from their current concept stages to feasible working models. FP5: Cleaner Energy Systems, including Renewable Energies, Reduction of local and global environment degrading emissions Cost sharing contracts BP Exploration Operating Company Ltd BP Exploration Operating Company Ltd

9 partners
€3.20m €2.15m 2001-12-01 to 2003-12-31

25 months
€0.93m
SACS2: Saline aquifer CO2 storage (2) - demonstration in the Sleipner field (‘sacs2’) SACS2 (This application) will monitor and verify the distribution of the CO2, bubble for two more years. Methods will be tested for prediction of the CO2 behaviour thousands of years into the future. RESULTS: Through monitoring and verification of integrated use of existing models, the SACS2 project will provide a scientifically based “Best-Practice-Manual”. FP5: Economic and Efficient Energy for a Competitive Europe Cost sharing contracts CRE Group Ltd,
Natural Environment Research Council,
BP Exploration Operating Company Ltd
BP Exploration Operating Company Ltd

12 partners
€3.03m €1.20m 2000-04-01 to 2002-10-31

31 months
€0.46m
CO2STORE: On-land long term saline aquifer CO2 storage (CO2STORE) EU is required to reduce its CO2 emissions by 8 by 2008-2012, later deeper cuts are foreseen. CO2 underground storage is one of the few options that can meet these obligations. The present project investigates four new potential cases for CO2-reservoirs, mainly on land. It will continue reservoir simulations and study geochemical reactions to develop final-fate prediction models. This will be supported by new seismic observations. At the same time gravimetrics is introduced as a new method better suited on land. This proposal builds directly on the Thermie/5FP SACS2 project results, which involved monitoring and modelling the injection of CO2 into the Utsira Sand aquifer, at Sleipner gas field, offshore Norway. FP5: Cleaner Energy Systems, including Renewable Energies Cost sharing contracts Natural Environment Research Council,
Bp Exploration Operating Company Ltd,
IEA Environmental Projects Ltd,
Progressive Energy Limited
Statoil Asa

18 partners
€2.50m €1.21m 2003-02-01 to 2006-01-31

36 months
€0.40m
WEYBURN: The weyburn CO2 monitoring project (WEYBURN) This project will enhance the knowledge and understanding of the underground sequestration of CO2, especially where associated with enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and develop and enhance monitoring techniques to ensure safe and stable underground storage. The proposed project will study and monitor the injection and sequestration of the CO2 at the Weyburn oil field (Saskatchewan, Canada) as an integral part of a long-term IEA-facilitated project. FP5: Cleaner Energy Systems, including Renewable Energies, Reduction of local and global environment degrading emissions Cost sharing contracts CRE Group Ltd,
Quintessa Ltd.,
Natural Environment Research Council
Natural Environment Research Council

7 partners
€2.25m €1.19m 2001-01-01 to 2004-06-30

42 months
€0.34m
CO2NET2: Carbon dioxide thematic network 2002-2005 CO2 Thematic Network will facilitate the development of CO2 capture and storage as a safe, technically feasible, socially acceptable mitigation option. This is one component of an overall strategy for the provision of a safe, secure, climate neutral energy supply for the European Union. Elimination technology development is included. FP5: Cleaner Energy Systems, including Renewable Energies Thematic network contracts Heriot-Watt University,
Natural Environment Research Council,
ABB Alstom Power UK Ltd.,
BP Exploration Operating Company Ltd.,
Technology Initiatives Ltd,
Quintessa Ltd.,
Imperial College London,
IEA Environmental Projects Ltd.,
Progressive Energy Limited,
Texaco North Sea U.K.
Statoil ASA

27 partners
€2.11m €1.40m 2002-11-01 to 2005-10-31

36 months
€0.47m
ICBM: Development of advanced reservoir characterisation and simulation tools for improved coal bed methane recovery This project aims at establishing an understanding of the basic scientific phenomena of CO2-CH4 adsorption, desorption, diffusion and flow in coal seams. The objectives of the project would be achieved through experimental and theoretical work to be carried by the project partners. FP5: Key action Economic and Efficient Energy for a Competitive Europe, Cost effective and more efficient exploration and production of hydrocarbons Cost-sharing contracts Imperial College London,
Wardell Armstrong Ltd,
BP Exploration Operating Company Ltd.
Imperial College London

5 partners
€1.55m €1m 2000-10-01 to 2004-03-31

42 months
€0.33m
Carbon dioxide capture and sequestration in geological storage technology network development programme, 2000-2001 Extensive external interest in two EU projects on CO2 sequestration into geological storage; SACS, an industrial scale demonstration into a saline aquifer and GESTCO, assessing the potential for geological storage in Europe, demanded immediate action, resulting in the development of this technology development awareness and networking proposal, CO2NET, to promote and facilitate the diffusion, transfer, exploitation and broader use of the projects’ results to help meet Kyoto emissions reduction demands. FP5: Cleaner Energy Systems, including Renewable Energies, Reduction of local and global environment degrading emissions Preparatory, accompanying and support measures CRE Group Ltd,
Technology Initiatives Ltd
Technology Initiatives Ltd

3 partners
€0.22m €0.13m 2000-12-01 to 2002-05-31

18 months
€0.083m
GOSAC: Global Ocean Storage of Anthropogenic Carbon GOSAC aims to improve understanding of the ocean’s role in the global carbon cycle via comparison of ocean carbon-cycle models. GOSAC will help speed the development of these models which are used to test and compare paradigms of how the ocean’s carbon-cycle operates. With its diverse group of models, GOSAC will also provide uncertainty estimates to accompany model predictions. FP4: Basic processes of the climate system Cost-sharing contracts University of Southampton,
National Environment Research Council
Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique

8 partners
1997-2001

40 months

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Section :

Table 9.1: International Activities

The UK is involved in many of the key international activities. This is by participation of major industry players (e.g. BP led the Carbon Capture project), or by very active Government membership (e.g. BERR within CSLF). The IEA Greenhouse Gas Programme has commissioned a series of reports and formed networks covering all aspects of CCS from power stations, to transport costs, worldwide storage, and geological aspects. There is substantial international activity on generic(and some UK) problems, funded and reported through world networks. The UK has also signed bilateral understandings on CCS with Norway and with China. Key research leaders internationally are perceived to be: Norway, Canada, Australia, and USA. Very few (if any) of these have significant involvement by UK Universities. A difference between the USA and rest of the world is the duality of funding to Federal laboratories and projects, together with Regional Partnerships of states to investigate CCS.

Table 9.1 includes international activities with UK involvement.

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Table 9.1: International Activities

       
 Name  Type  Description  UK Contact Point
International Energy Agency Demand-Side Management Programme Implementing Agreement The IEA Demand-Side Management Programme is an international collaboration of 17 countries working together to develop and promote opportunities for demand-side management (DSM). DSM offers solutions to problems such as load management, energy efficiency, strategic conservation and related activities. IEA-DSM aims to provide a “tool-box” to help governments and utilities in their work to make energy systems more suited to their purpose. Paul Davidson, BRE
Bioenergy IEA Implementing Agreement Task 29 is an ongoing initiative from 1 January 2000 with the aim to:
  • determine the economic contribution (financial, local industry creation, infrastructure developments, etc.) resulting from the deployment of bioenergy systems
  • determine the social impact (employment, education, health, etc.) resulting from the deployment of bioenergy systems
  • encourage the exchange of information and Task results between participants and also with countries in transition (Objective 5 of the Strategic Plan).
The participating countries in the 2003-2005 period are Austria, Canada, Croatia, Ireland, Japan, Norway, Sweden and United Kingdom. Task 39 is currently composed of 13 countries The Task brings together leading researchers and industry pioneers in our bid to successfully introduce biofuels for transportation into the commercial marketplace. Activities include the technical challenges of biofuel production, as well as the policy and regulatory issues that must be addressed in commercialization. The goal is to provide our members with comprehensive information that will assist them with the development and deployment of biofuels for transportation fuel use.
Keith Richards, TV Energy
Gary Shanahan, DTI
Tony Sidwell, British Sugar
Environmental, Safety and Economic Aspects of Fusion Power IEA Implementing Agreement The work programme includes developing databases for use in safety and environmental evaluations, comparing methodologies used in Europe, Japan and the United States for safety and environmental analyses and achieving consistency and accuracy, development and validation of models for environmental and safety analysis. The IA also develops economic evaluations of the cost of fusion energy based on reactor system studies, produces projections on possible role of fusion power in future energy market, and advices national research programmes and the IEA on such matters. Chris Carpenter,
UKAEA
Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP) IEA Implementing Agreement The objective of the Implementing Agreement on Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP) is to serve national governments and work in international forums by fostering and supporting the development of energy technology policy options.

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